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LaTeX-Kompendium: Zitieren mit BibTeX. Eine gute Moglichkeit, Zitate einzufugen und zu formatieren, ist BibTeX ( B I B T E X !T!_ !X ). Summary. Dieses Programm erlaubt es, aus einer Datenbank an age gap, Eintragen (entries) verschiedener Typen (Entry types, z. Morrie. B. Core Competencies. Artikel, Bucher, Konferenzbande) die fur den aktuellen Text benotigten herauszusuchen (indem man sie zitiert) und sie - bei Bedarf sortiert (z.B. nach dem Autor oder dem Alphabet) - an einer gewunschten Stelle auszugeben. Tuesday With Summary. Dazu benotigt es eine Datenbank, einen Stil und naturlich Zitate im Text. Ein einfaches Beispiel der Einbindung wurde wie folgt aussehen: Fur dieses Beispiel musste im gleichen Verzeichnis eine Datei lit.bib mit dem Eintrag meier99 vorhanden sein, siehe dazu unten. Grace Papers. Die Quellen werden in with morrie einem bestimmten Format in grace papers eine (oder auch mehrere) Dateien gespeichert, wobei es auch Programme gibt, welche dies erledigen. Morrie Summary. Jede Quelle hat einen eindeutigen Schlussel (den BibTeX-Key), welcher fur das Zitat verwendet wird.

Im obigen Beispiel ist meier99 ein solcher Schlussel. Der cite-Befehl, von dem es weitere Abwandlungen, vor allem mit natbib gibt, zitiert an Remedies, der entsprechenden Stelle, das Zitat wird bei der Ausgabe je nach Stil ausgegeben. Der Befehl bibliography bindet eine Literaturdatenbank (in diesem Fall lit.bib) ein, und erstellt das Literaturverzeichnis. Summary. Direkt danach muss noch der Stil dieses Verzeichnisses durch bibliographystyle definiert werden. 30 Year Age Gap. Das Verzeichnis wird je nach Dokumentenklasse als section oder chapter eingefugt (und zwar mit Stern, d.h. das Literaturverzeichnis wird normalerweise nicht in tuesday summary das Inhaltsverzeichnis aufgenommen und nicht mitnummeriert). Literaturtypen (Entry types) Bearbeiten. Fur jeden Typ von BibTeX-Eintrag gibt es Pflichteintrage und zusatzliche Attribute. Situation. Ohne die notwendigen Pflichteintrage wird die Bibliografie nicht fehlerfrei kompiliert. Tuesday Summary. Verpflichtend ist die Referenz fur den Eintrag, die beliebig - aber moglichst eindeutig - gewahlt werden kann.

Ein Beispiel: Auf diese Referenz kann dann im Text mit. verwiesen werden. Home For Yeast Allergy. Seitenzahlen werden in eckige Klammern gesetzt und so ausgegeben wie eingetragen: Will man ein f. Tuesday With Morrie. oder ein ff. Grace Papers. fur folgende, bzw. Tuesday. fortfolgende mit angeben, geschieht dies mit psq, bzw. psqq: Notwendige Felder: author oder editor, title, publisher, year. Relationships. Optionale Felder: volume oder number, series, address, edition, month, note, isbn. Morrie Summary. Konferenzbande und Sammelwerke Bearbeiten. Notwendige Felder: title, year. Optionale Felder: editor, volume oder number, series, address, month, organization, publisher, note. Das Hauptwerk wird zu einem Eintrag: Die Eintrage bekommen zusatzlich jeder fur sich einen Bib-Eintrag.

Diese sollten - bei getrennten Bib-Files pro marketing analysis, Werk - ebenfalls in tuesday summary der Datei des Hauptwerkes verzeichnet sein. Notwendige Felder: author, title, booktitle, year. Optionale Felder: editor, volume oder number, series, pages, address, month, organization, publisher, note. Notwendige Felder: keine. Stuart Utilitarianism Book. Optionale Felder: author, title, howpublished, month, year, note. Tuesday With Summary. Trotz vielfaltiger Gestaltungsmoglichkeiten, unter anderem mit dem Befehl custombib, der die Festlegung einzelner Merkmale eines eigenen Bibliographiestils ermoglicht, gibt es verstandlicherweise nicht fur jede Anforderung einen vordefinierten Bibliographiestil. Wenngleich viele Stile Optionen zur Anpassung an die eigenen Bedurfnisse bieten, kommt man in john mill manchen Situationen nicht um das Erstellen eigener Styles herum. Morrie Summary. Das Erlernen der postfix-Notation, in Home for Yeast Allergy der Bibtex-Stile programmiert werden, gilt jedoch als sehr schwierig, selbst das Verandern bereits bestehender Stile ist nicht ohne weiteres moglich. Eine Losung fur dieses Dilemma bietet BibLaTeX. Tuesday With Summary. Bibliographie-Stile fur BibLaTeX werden in analysis LaTeX programmiert, was die Erstellung eigener und Veranderung bestehender Stile fur LaTeX-Konner deutlich vereinfacht.

BibTeX passt je nach eingestelltem Stil das Format an. Tuesday With Morrie. Meistens ist dies ganz praktisch, in seltenen Fallen treten aber Missverstandnisse auf und nicht das gewunschte Ergebnis entsteht. Core. Wenn der Autor einen Doppelnamen hat oder eine Organisation ist, kann es bei einigen Stilen passieren, dass der Name nicht richtig ausgegeben wird. With Morrie Summary. So erstellt BibTex beispielsweise aus dem Autor World Health Organization die Ausgabe Organization, W.H. Stuart Mill Utilitarianism. Dieses Problem kann gelost werden, indem der Name in geschweifte Klammern geschrieben wird: . With Summary. Im Quellcode werden doppelte Klammern verwendet: AUTHOR = Wenn der Titel aus mehreren Wortern besteht, und BibTeX diese nicht korrekt erkennt, kann es vorkommen, dass Worter, die eigentlich gro?geschrieben sein sollten, im Literaturverzeichnis kleingeschrieben sind. Dies lasst sich auch mit geschweiften Klammern losen. Age Gap. Auch hier werden wieder doppelte geschweifte Klammern verwendet: TITLE = . Tuesday With Morrie Summary. Alternativ kann auch der Stil gerplain (d.h. Relationships. bibliographystyle ) oder dinat verwendet werden. Tuesday With Summary. Hier erhalten die Literaturangaben auch eine etwas andere Gestaltung (die Autoren werden z.B. in of the gods Kapitalchen, der Titel kursiv gesetzt). Morrie. Damit das Literatur-Verzeichnis und etwaige Verweise darauf beim Betrachten der DVI-Datei korrekt angezeigt werden, muss die LaTeX-Quelle (und zwar das TeX-Dokument, in core das die Literaturdatenbank eingebunden wird, nicht die Bib-Datei selbst!) mehrfach kompiliert werden: Erst mit Hilfe des Latex-Compilers, dann mit dem BibTex-Compiler, anschlie?end muss zweimal der LaTeX-Compiler angewandt werden, siehe auch Ende des Artikels.

Die Darstellung der Zitate und des Literaturverzeichnisses wird uber eine Datei mit der Endung .sty definiert. With Summary. Es gibt eine Vielzahl von vorgefertigten Formaten, von denen viele auch in den gangigen LaTeX-Distributionen enthalten sind (Beispiel-Styles). Speziell fur den deutschen Sprachraum und Zitate nach der Norm DIN 1505 gibt es ein eigenes Paket mit einem passenden Stil ( natdin ), welches eingebunden werden kann, und zusatzlich weitere Beispiele, wie zum Beispiel das Paket jurabib und weitere. 30 Year. Bestimmt wird der Stil uber den Befehl bibliographystyle direkt nach dem bibliography -Befehl. Zuerst erstellen wir eine beispielhafte BibTeX-Datei, hier verzeichnis1.bib: sowie die dazugehorige LaTeX-Datei bibspiel1.tex: und Kompilieren mit: das Ergebnis bibspiel1.dvi kann jetzt mit einem DVI-Betrachter angezeigt werden. Tuesday Morrie Summary. Der Literaturgenerator macht es moglich, schnell und einfach BibTeX-Eintrage zu erstellen. Competencies. Es reicht den Titel des Buches in morrie das Suchfeld einzutragen. Die meisten Bibliothekskataloge konnen mittlerweile BibTeX exportieren (ggf. Analysis. nach Citavi). Hiermit konnen komplette Datensatze in morrie die BibTeX-Datenbank ubernommen werden. Grace Papers. Mit dem Webtool Lead2Amazon ist es moglich, BibTeX-Eintrage fur Bucher, die bei Amazon erhaltlich sind, automatisch zu generieren.

In das Suchfeld muss dabei lediglich die ISBN eingetragen werden. Tuesday With Morrie Summary. Mit dem Literaturverwaltungsprogramm zotero lassen sich auch bibtex-Dateien exportieren. Mendeley ist ebenfalls ein sehr umfangreiches Literaturverwaltungsprogramm (als Desktop- oder Webversion), mit Hilfe dessen man auch bibtex-Dateien generieren kann: Zur Suche von fertigen BibTeX Eintragen bietet sich Google Scholar an:

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Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. With Morrie. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. Of The Gods. The Mason River flowing through the tuesday with morrie summary city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to increase. The city government should for marketing that reason devote more money in tuesday with morrie, this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted.

Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to grace papers devote more money to tuesday with riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. Home. It is easy to tuesday with morrie summary understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to marketing analysis lead to morrie summary increased funding. Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of grace papers, water sports. It is not clear, however, the scope and validity of that survey. For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports.

The sample may not have been representative of tuesday summary, city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. We just do not know. Samsung Competencies. Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for tuesday with swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is john utilitarianism book not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from with summary implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in marketing situation analysis, increased river usage. If the river's water quality and smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true.

For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by morrie summary pollution by factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the area. This is not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage. Regardless of whether the river's quality is able to situation analysis be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and tuesday with morrie summary revenue from those who come to take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of life for residents. For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to allocate increased funding.

Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. Gods. The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the with morrie survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out of the gods that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the tuesday with morrie summary river for recreation. Marketing Situation. Complaints about with morrie summary water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon grace papers the previous ones. Morrie. For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of 30 year age gap relationships, paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the with logical sequence of relationships, sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4).

Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to increase the budget for with summary Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought. While the correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from diverting resources to this project.

For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the samsung winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague. Morrie Summary. While water sports may be among the analysis residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites.

What remains unknown is the tuesday morrie priorities of the general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to sacrifice the municipal golf course for relationships better riverside facilities? Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. Tuesday With Summary. While it is not illogical to Home Remedies for Yeast Allergy expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the tuesday with morrie reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the core primary limiting factor to usage or the tuesday with lack of docks and 30 year piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the with recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the 30 year relationships city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to summary assign a proportional increase to the budget.

Likewise, the grace papers author is optimistic regarding the tuesday summary state promise to clean the river. We need to hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of core, funds in renovating the tuesday summary riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the marketing situation state drags the tuesday with morrie river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the City may not be willing to draw money away from samsung core other key projects from road improvements to schools and education. The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget.

While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is tuesday morrie required to warrant any action. Rater Commentary for gods Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to morrie summary clean the john stuart mill book river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to spend more on riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and tuesday morrie thorough. For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the grace papers survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to tuesday summary fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in a logical order and marketing situation analysis considers their connections.

Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to tuesday this question requires. Situation Analysis. ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in pattern and tuesday with morrie summary length. The Mills Of The Gods. The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for with a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the Home Remedies Essay writer of the tuesday with morrie arguement is correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the stuart utilitarianism city allot more money to fund them? If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for tuesday with morrie themselves, eliminating the need for Remedies the city government to devote more money to them.

According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for tuesday morrie summary water sports is because of the marketing situation smell and the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is tuesday morrie summary being cut from some other important city project. 30 Year Age Gap Relationships. Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and tuesday morrie summary more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the river to john stuart mill utilitarianism book attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for morrie summary Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the of the gods river need more funding.

Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the summary first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to john utilitarianism book show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the tuesday morrie efforts to samsung clean the river will be successful). Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of with, its own.

Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to the mills other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is tuesday with not used more for Home Remedies Essay water sports. This response is generally free of errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to support a score of 4. Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the tuesday with morrie residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. The city park department can only do as much as they observe.

The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. 30 Year Relationships. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to go away. If the budget is changed to with accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. The residents will then begin to samsung core complain about other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Mason River. If more money is taken out tuesday summary of the budget to clean the core competencies river an assumption can be made.

This assumption is that the budget for another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to. In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. Tuesday With Morrie. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the government is to please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. The government has to for Yeast Allergy Essay realize the long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the tuesday morrie survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of Home Remedies, pleasing city residents.

Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and with morrie This assumption is that the budget for grace papers another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for recreation. Hence, the proposal to increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in tuesday summary, this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence. Remedies For Yeast Essay. However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and with summary the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. Remedies. This is a wrong cause and result to solve the tuesday with summary problem.

Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the state plan to 30 year clean up the river. As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at two sentences, the result is not appropriate for the cause. Third, the last statement is the with conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the 30 year age gap relationships city government might devote the budget to tuesday morrie another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and result. In summary, the statement is the mills of the gods not logical because there are some errors in it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to tuesday with morrie summary be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for the assigned task. In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to Remedies any unstated assumptions.

Furthermore, several errors in tuesday with morrie, grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical). Because this response does not follow the marketing directions for the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Tuesday Morrie. Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of its implications. Although the response may begin to address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Tuesday? Most of the ACT is entirely multiple choice. All you have to worry about john mill, when answering the questions is that you’re filling in with morrie summary, the correct answer bubble! But then there’s that (optional) Writing section, which requires you to give your answer in words. How are you supposed to write a persuasive essay in Home Remedies for Yeast Essay, 40 minutes? What format should your essay have? Is there an ACT essay template that can guarantee you a high score? We'll answer these questions in this article. feature image credit: homework ritual by woodleywonderworks, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from with morrie original. What Does Your ACT Essay Need?

5 Key Elements. John Stuart Mill Utilitarianism Book? In order to do well on ACT Writing, your essay will need to have the following five elements (not necessarily in this order): The first thing the grader will see is your opening paragraph, so you should make a good impression. Don't just jump right into the meat of your essay - introduce your perspective (your thesis statement) and how it relates to the other perspectives given by tuesday morrie the essay prompt. You don't necessarily have to john mill book, start out by writing your introduction (you can always leave a few lines blank at the top of tuesday with your essay and grace papers come back to it after you've written your example paragraphs), but you MUST include it. 2. Your Thesis Statement (should be in your introduction) You must take a perspective on the issue presented in tuesday, the prompt paragraph and state it clearly . I advise using one of the three perspectives the ACT gives you as your position/perspective; you can come up with your own perspective, but then you have more work to 30 year, do in the essay (which is tuesday summary not ideal with a time constraint). Your thesis statement (the statement of your perspective) should go in the introduction of age gap your essay. 3. A Discussion of All Three Perspectives. In your essay, you must discuss all three perspectives the ACT gives you . Tuesday Summary? Make sure to discuss pros as well as cons for the perspectives you don’t agree with to show you understand the complexities of the the mills gods, issue. 4. Examples or Reasoning to Support Each Point. To support your arguments for and against each perspective, you need to draw on tuesday, reasoning or specific examples . Age Gap? This reasoning should be in the same paragraph as the arguments.

For instance, if your argument is about how globalization leads to greater efficiency, you should include your support for tuesday summary this argument in marketing situation, the same paragraph. And it's not enough to just say “Because freedom” or “Because Stalin” or something like that as your support and leave it at that. You need to actually explain how your reasoning or examples support your point. Avoid discussing multiple points in one paragraph. Instead, our recommended strategy is to discuss one perspective per with summary paragraph . This organization will not only make it easier for you to stay on grace papers, track, but will also make it easier for your essay's scorers to follow your reasoning (always a good thing). The 5-paragraph structure might seem boring, but it is tuesday with morrie summary a good way to keep your points organized when writing an utilitarianism essay. For the ACT essay, you'll need an introduction, three body paragraphs (one paragraph for each perspective), and tuesday with morrie a conclusion . You should state your thesis in of the, your introduction and conclusion (using different words in your conclusion so that you're not repeating yourself exactly).

So how do you write in this five paragraph structure on the ACT? I'll show you how to put the plan into action with an essay template that can be used for any ACT essay question. First, here's the prompt I'll be using: Public Health and Individual Freedom. Most people want to be healthy, and morrie most people want as much freedom as possible to do the things they want. Unfortunately, these two desires sometimes conflict. For example, smoking is prohibited from most public places, which restricts the freedom of some individuals for the sake of the book, health of others.

Likewise, car emissions are regulated in many areas in order to reduce pollution and its health risks to tuesday morrie, others, which in turn restricts some people’s freedom to drive the vehicles they want. In a society that values both health and freedom, how do we best balance the two? How should we think about conflicts between public health and relationships individual freedom? Read and tuesday with summary carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about the conflict between public health and individual freedom. Our society should strive to achieve the greatest good for the greatest number of grace papers people. When the freedom of the individual interferes with that principle, freedom must be restricted. Nothing in society is more valuable than freedom. Perhaps physical health is sometimes improved by restricting freedom, but the cost to the health of our free society is far too great to justify it.

The right to avoid health risks is a freedom, too. When we allow individual behavior to endanger others, we’ve damaged both freedom and health. Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on the conflict between public health and individual freedom. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the perspectives given state and tuesday with morrie develop your own perspective on the issue explain the john mill book, relationship between your perspective and with morrie those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. Next, I'll break down the ACT essay into its individual parts (introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion) and give examples for what each should look like. Because I'm writing in response to a specific prompt, some of the information may not translate exactly from essay to essay; instead, focus on grace papers, the structure of the paragraphs. I've bolded key structural words and phrases for with you to focus on. Competencies? Begin your introduction with a general statement about the topic that draws the reader in; should provide some context for what you’ll be discussing in the essay. Can be omitted if you’re short on time (1-2 sentences).

As society progresses into the 21 st century, there are some pundits who create a false two-sided fight between individual liberty and complete dependence on the government. Next comes your thesis statement that includes a clear position on the issue. For highest score, you should also mention the other perspectives in contrast to the position you’ve chosen (1 sentence). While individual freedom is essential to society, I believe that the freedom to avoid health risks supersedes freedom of the individual when individual behavior endangers others. Sample ACT essay introduction: As society progresses into the 21 st century, there are some pundits who create a false two-sided fight between individual liberty and complete dependence on the government. While individual freedom is essential to society, I believe that the freedom to avoid health risks supersedes freedom of the with, individual when individual behavior endangers others. Body paragraph 1 (Opposing perspective) (5-7 sentences) Open with a transition to one of the other two perspectives (1 sentence).

Perspective Two espouses the view that “[t]hose who give up freedom in order to gain security deserve neither.” Provide an example of how this perspective is somewhat true and explain why (2-3 sentences). This perspective is true to some extent. For instance, in the Civil Rights movement, schools were integrated at the cost of both the mental well-being of racists, who had to deal with the blow to their world view, and the physical and emotional well-being of those being integrated, who had to deal with the abuse flung upon analysis them by with summary said racists. The freedom to attend any public school was deemed more important to society than the temporary mental, emotional, and in some cases physical health risks caused by that freedom. Provide an example of how this perspective is mostly false when compared to the perspective you agree with and explain why (2-3 sentences).

I do not believe, however, the Perspective Two is always a useful way to think about the world, particularly when life and grace papers death is at stake. During the Civil Rights movement, parents who were afraid their children might incur physical or even fatal harm from being forced to morrie summary, integrate still had the freedom to homeschool; the same goes for parents who were racist and did not wish their children to interact with children of “lesser” races. While the 30 year relationships, government pushed the issue of freedom of all people to attend all public schools, it could not make it mandatory for with morrie every child to attend a public school (rather than being homeschooled, or attending private or church school) and risk physical injury or worse. The Mills Of The Gods? Sample Body Paragraph (Opposing Perspective): Perspective Two espouses the view that “[t]hose who give up freedom in order to gain security deserve neither.” This perspective is true to some extent. For instance, in the Civil Rights movement, schools were integrated at the cost of both the tuesday, mental well-being of racists, who had to grace papers, deal with the blow to their world view, and morrie the physical and emotional well-being of 30 year age gap relationships those being integrated, who had to deal with the abuse flung upon them by said racists. The freedom to attend any public school was deemed more important to society than the temporary mental, emotional, and in tuesday morrie, some cases physical health risks caused by that freedom. I do not believe, however, that Perspective Two is always a useful way to think about the world, particularly when life and death is at stake. During the Civil Rights movement, parents who were afraid their children might incur physical or even fatal harm from being forced to integrate still had the freedom to homeschool; the same goes for parents who were racist and did not wish their children to interact with children of marketing situation “lesser” races. While the government pushed the issue of freedom of all people to attend all public schools, it could not make it mandatory for morrie summary every child to attend a public school (rather than being homeschooled, or attending private or church school) and relationships risk physical injury or worse.

Body paragraph 2 (Opposing perspective) (5-7 sentences) Same as above, except with the other perspective you disagree with/don't entirely agree with. Make sure to morrie, use transition words so that the of the gods, change of topic (from the previous perspective) isn't abrupt or unexpected. To make your example of the summary, Spanish Inquisition less unexpected, make sure to use transitions. Body paragraph 3 (Your perspective) (5-7 sentences) Acknowledge the value of the other two perspectives, but affirm that your perspective is the truest one (1-2 sentences). As can be seen from the examples above, sometimes the greater good means individual freedom is more important than personal health. Grace Papers? For the most part, however, allowing individual behavior to harm others damages both freedom and health. Provide one final example of why this perspective is true (3-5 sentences). Some parents worry that vaccines contain toxic chemicals and so have fought for the right to not vaccinate their children against once deadly diseases like measles. By being allowed this freedom, however, these parents are not only putting their children at risk of catching these virulent diseases, but are risking the life of morrie anyone with a compromised immune system who comes into contact with a non-vaccinated child. The results of the anti-vaccination movement can be seen in cases like the recent measles outbreak at Disneyland and the mumps outbreak at a New York City daycare company; both of these outbreaks unfortunately led to samsung core competencies, fatalities. When the health risks caused by personal freedom reach life-and-death stakes, it is necessary to restrict individual freedom in favor of freedom to avoid preventable health risks.

Sample Body Paragraph (Your Perspective): As can be seen from the tuesday with morrie, examples above, sometimes the grace papers, greater good means individual freedom is more important than personal health. For the most part, however, allowing individual behavior to harm others damages both freedom and health. Some parents worry that vaccines contain toxic chemicals and with morrie so have fought for the right to not vaccinate their children against once deadly diseases like measles. By being allowed this freedom, however, these parents are not only putting their children at risk of catching these virulent diseases, but are risking the life of grace papers anyone with a compromised immune system who comes into tuesday with, contact with a non-vaccinated child. The Mills Of The? The results of the anti-vaccination movement can be seen in cases like the recent measles outbreak at Disneyland and tuesday with summary the mumps outbreak at samsung competencies a New York City daycare company; both of these outbreaks unfortunately led to fatalities. When the health risks caused by with morrie personal freedom reach life-and-death stakes, it is situation analysis necessary to with summary, restrict individual freedom in favor of freedom to avoid preventable health risks. Transition into restating your thesis, using different words (1-2 sentences). Sample ACT Essay conclusion: America was built on of the, the idea that there is a fundamental right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of morrie summary happiness – in that order. Home For Yeast Essay? When individual behavior puts others’ lives at with morrie risk, it must be curtailed. Grace Papers? Here is my final ACT essay template (excluding the second body paragraph): As society progresses into the 21 st century, there are some pundits who create a false two-sided fight between individual liberty and complete dependence on the government.

While individual freedom is essential to society, I believe that the freedom to tuesday with, avoid health risks supersedes freedom of the individual when individual behavior endangers others. Perspective Two espouses the view that “[t]hose who give up freedom in order to grace papers, gain security deserve neither.” This perspective is true to some extent. For instance, in with summary, the Civil Rights movement, schools were integrated at the cost of both the mental well-being of racists, who had to deal with the blow to their world view, and the physical and emotional well-being of those being integrated, who had to gods, deal with the abuse flung upon them by summary said racists. The freedom to attend any public school was deemed more important to society than the temporary mental, emotional, and in some cases physical health risks caused by grace papers that freedom. I do not believe, however, that Perspective Two is always a useful way to think about the world, particularly when life and death is at with morrie summary stake. During the Civil Rights movement, parents who were afraid their children might incur physical or even fatal harm from being forced to of the gods, integrate still had the freedom to homeschool; the same goes for parents who were racist and did not wish their children to interact with children of tuesday with “lesser” races. While the government pushed the issue of core competencies freedom of all people to with morrie, attend all public schools, it could not make it mandatory for every child to attend a public school (rather than being homeschooled, or attending private or church school) and 30 year relationships risk physical injury or worse. [Body paragraph two on the other opposing perspective would go here] As can be seen from the examples above, sometimes the greater good means individual freedom is more important than personal health. For the most part, however, allowing individual behavior to harm others damages both freedom and health. Some parents worry that vaccines contain toxic chemicals and so have fought for the right to not vaccinate their children against tuesday morrie summary, once deadly diseases like measles.

By being allowed this freedom, however, these parents are not only putting their children at analysis risk of catching these virulent diseases, but are risking the life of tuesday with anyone with a compromised immune system who comes into contact with a non-vaccinated child. The results of the anti-vaccination movement can be seen in cases like the recent measles outbreak at Disneyland and the mumps outbreak at a New York City daycare company; both of these outbreaks unfortunately led to fatalities. When the health risks caused by personal freedom reach life-and-death stakes, it is necessary to restrict individual freedom in favor of freedom to avoid preventable health risks. America was built on the idea that there is a fundamental right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness – in marketing situation, that order. When individual behavior puts others’ lives at risk, it must be curtailed. Even though there are some minor grammatical issues in this essay, because they don't significantly affect the readability of my essay they don't matter. There are also some factual inaccuracies in morrie, this essay (as far as I know, there haven’t been any reports of a mumps outbreak in grace papers, NYC daycare facilities), but that doesn’t matter for the ACT as long as the facts are persuasive and make sense in morrie, the context of the samsung core, essay . Adding false information about with, a mumps outbreak added to stuart utilitarianism book, the persuasive impact of the essay, so I put it in, whereas I couldn’t figure out a way to work dinosaurs into this essay, and so they were not included. Next essay, my velociraptor friend.

Next essay. How Do You Write Essays In This Format? Now that you have a structural template for your ACT essay, how and when do you use it? An essay template is most helpful during the planning phase of tuesday with summary your essay. Whether you're writing a practice essay or taking the test for real, it's important to take the time to grace papers, plan out your essay before you start writing. I personally believe 8-10 minutes is a good amount of planning time to start out with, although you may get faster at planning as you practice, leaving more time for writing and revising. Tuesday Morrie? It might be tempting to stuart book, leave out this planning stage so that you have more time to read the tuesday with morrie summary, prompt or write. Don't fall into this trap! If you don’t take the time to plan, you run the risk of grace papers writing a disorganized essay that doesn't really support your argument or omits one of the perspectives. If you’re struggling with decoding the prompts, be sure to read my article on how to attack ACT Writing prompts; it'll help you break down every ACT Writing prompt so that you can extract the information you need to tuesday morrie summary, write your essay.

In addition to using this essay template when you're planning out Remedies for Yeast Allergy your essay, you also need to make sure you practice writing this kind of essay before you take the real ACT Plus Writing. Don't expect to with summary, just memorize this outline and be good to go on gods, test day - you'll need to practice putting the tuesday with, template to good use. Practice with as many ACT Writing prompts as you can - our complete guide to of the, ACT Writing prompts will get you started. Remember, your essay should be in tuesday with summary, the following format: Your point of view on john mill utilitarianism, the essay topic (should be the same as one of the three perspectives the ACT gives you). Body paragraph 1 (Opposing perspective) - 5-7 sentences. Reason why it's true (with reasoning or examples for support) Reason why it's not as true as your perspective (with reasoning or examples for support) Body paragraph 2 (Other opposing perspective) - 5-7 sentences Reason why it's true (with reasoning or examples for support) Reason why it's not as true as your perspective (with reasoning or examples for support) Body paragraph 3 (Your perspective) - 5-7 sentences One last reason why your perspective is true (with reasoning or examples for support). Conclusion (with your thesis restated) - 1-2 sentences. Want to learn more about how to write a top-scoring ACT essay? Watch as I construct an ACT essay, step-by-step. Want to tuesday with morrie, improve your ACT score by age gap 4 points?

Check out with morrie our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is the mills of the gods entirely online, and tuesday morrie summary it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this ACT Writing lesson, you'll love our program. Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get your ACT essays hand-graded by a master instructor who will give you customized feedback on how you can improve. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in of the gods, Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of tuesday Music of relationships Bard College.

She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and tuesday with morrie summary GRE and loves advising students on how to grace papers, excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on tuesday, social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and of the gods we'll reply! Series: How to tuesday summary, Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for 30 year relationships Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the morrie summary, latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015.

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computer toefl essay TOEFL Writing Topics. 1. Tuesday With. People attend school for many different reasons (for example, expanded knowledge, societal awareness, and enhanced interpersonal relationships). The Mills Of The Gods. Why do you think people decide to go to school? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 2. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Coaches are the best teachers. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 3. Nowadays, with the invention of the microwave and with the morrie summary, popularity of samsung competencies, fast food restaurants, food has become easier to prepare than ever.

Do you think microwave ovens and fast food restaurants are beneficial to tuesday morrie summary society? Use specific reasons and Home Remedies for Yeast Allergy, examples to support your answer. 4. It has been said, Not all learning takes place in the classroom. Compare and contrast knowledge gained from personal experience with knowledge gained from tuesday with, classroom instruction. In your opinion, which source is more important? Why? 5. Your government has announced that it wishes to build a military base near your community.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on your community. Do you support or oppose the military base? 6. 30 Year Age Gap. If you could change one important thing about your country, what would you change? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 7. How does advertising influence people's behavior? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 8. Tuesday With Morrie Summary. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The invention of the Internet has had negative effects on your civilization. 30 Year Relationships. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 9. Some students prefer to attend a small university.

Others prefer to attend a big university. Discuss the advantages of with summary, each. Then indicate which type of university you prefer? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 10.When people succeed in life, it is grace papers because of hard work.

Being lucky has nothing to tuesday do with success in utilitarianism book life. Do you agree or disagree with the quotation above? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your position. 11. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Universities should give the same amount of money to their students' sports activities as they give to their university libraries. Use specific reasons and tuesday with, examples to age gap relationships support your opinion. 12. Many people visit museums when they travel to new places.

Why do you think people visit museums? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 13. Some people prefer to eat at food stands or restaurants. Other people prefer to prepare and eat food at tuesday with morrie summary, home. Situation Analysis. Which do you prefer?

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 14. Some people believe that university students should be required to attend classes. Others believe that going to classes should be optional for students. Which point of view do you agree with?

Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. 15. Tuesday With. Neighbors are the people who live near us. In your opinion, what are the qualities of john utilitarianism book, a good neighbor? Use specific details and morrie summary, examples in your answer. 16. Stuart Mill Book. It has recently been announced that a new restaurant may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 17.

Some people think that they can learn better by with themselves than with a teacher. Others think that it is always better to have a teacher. Remedies. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons to tuesday with summary develop your essay. 18.

What are some important qualities of a good supervisor (boss)? Use specific details and examples to samsung explain why these qualities are important. 19. Should governments spend more money on improving roads and highways, or should governments spend more money on improving public transportation (buses, trains, subways)? Why? Use specific reasons and tuesday with morrie, details to develop your essay. 20. Some people prefer to Home cook at tuesday with morrie, home. Other people prefer to eat out. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to Allergy Essay support your answer.

21. It is better for children to grow up in the countryside than in tuesday with morrie summary a big city. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to develop your essay. 22. In general, people are living longer now.

Discuss the causes of the mills of the, this phenomenon. Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. 23. We all work or will work in our jobs with many different kinds of people. In your opinion, what are some important characteristics of a co-worker (someone you work closely with)? Use reasons and specific examples to explain why these characteristics are important. 24. Tuesday With Morrie. In some countries, teenagers have jobs while they are still students.

Do you think this is a good idea? Support your opinion by using specific reasons and details. 25. A person you know is planning to move to your town or city. What do you think this person would like and dislike about living in your town or city? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. 26. It has recently been announced that a large shopping center may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why?

Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 27. It has recently been announced that a new movie theater may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 28. Do you agree or disagree with the Essay, following statement? People should sometimes do things that they do not enjoy doing. Use specific reasons and examples to tuesday with summary support your answer.

29. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television, newspapers, magazines, and other media pay too much attention to Remedies Allergy the personal lives of famous people such as public figures and celebrities. Use specific reasons and details to explain your opinion. 30. Some people believe that the Earth is being harmed (damaged) by human activity. Others feel that human activity makes the Earth a better place to live. Tuesday Morrie Summary. What is your opinion? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 31.

It has recently been announced that a new high school may be built in your community. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details in your answer. 32. Some people spend their entire lives in one place. Others move a number of times throughout their lives, looking for a better job, house, community, or even climate. Which do you prefer: staying in one place or moving in search of another place? Use reasons and specific examples to support your opinion. 33.

Is it better to enjoy your money when you earn it or is it better to save your money for some time in the future? Use specific reasons and john mill utilitarianism book, examples to support your opinion. 34. You have received a gift of tuesday with morrie, money. The money is enough to buy either a piece of jewelry you like or tickets to a concert you want to attend. Which would you buy? Use specific reasons and details to grace papers support your answer. 35. Businesses should hire employees for their entire lives. Tuesday With. Do you agree or disagree?

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 36. Samsung. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Attending a live performance (for example, a play, concert, or sporting event) is more enjoyable than watching the same event on television. Use specific reasons and with summary, examples to marketing support your opinion. 37. With Morrie. Choose one of the following transportation vehicles and explain why you think it has changed people's lives. 38. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Do you agree or disagree that progress is always good?

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 39. Learning about the past has no value for those of us living in the present. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and stuart mill book, examples to tuesday summary support your answer. 40. Do you agree or disagree with the grace papers, following statement?

With the help of technology, students nowadays can learn more information and tuesday, learn it more quickly. Remedies Allergy. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 41. The expression Never, never give up means to keep trying and never stop working for tuesday morrie your goals. For Yeast Allergy. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

42. Tuesday Morrie. Some people think that human needs for farmland, housing, and industry are more important than saving land for endangered animals. Do you agree or disagree with this point of view? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 43. What is a very important skill a person should learn in order to be successful in grace papers the world today? Choose one skill and tuesday morrie summary, use specific reasons and examples to grace papers support your choice. 44.

Why do you think some people are attracted to dangerous sports or other dangerous activities? Use specific reasons and tuesday, examples to support your answer. 45. Core Competencies. Some people like to travel with a companion. Other people prefer to travel alone. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 46. Some people prefer to get up early in tuesday morrie the morning and start the day's work. Others prefer to get up later in the day and work until late at night.

Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to samsung core support your choice. 47. What are the important qualities of a good son or daughter? Have these qualities changed or remained the same over time in your culture? Use specific reasons and tuesday with morrie summary, examples to support your answer. 48. Some people prefer to work for a large company.

Others prefer to work for age gap relationships a small company. Which would you prefer? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 49. Tuesday Morrie. People work because they need money to live. What are some other reasons that people work? Discuss one or more of these reasons. Use specific examples and details to support your answer.

50. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Face-to-face communication is situation analysis better than other types of communication, such as letters, E-mail, or telephone calls. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 51. Some people like to morrie do only what they already do well. Other people prefer to try new things and take risks. Which do you prefer?

Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 52. Some people believe that success in life comes from taking risks or chances. Others believe that success results from careful planning. In your opinion, what does success come from? Use specific reasons and Home Remedies Allergy Essay, examples to tuesday morrie support your answer. 53. What change would make your hometown more appealing to 30 year age gap relationships people your age? Use specific reasons and tuesday with summary, examples to support your opinion. 54.

Do you agree or disagree with the relationships, following statement? The most important aspect of a job is the money a person earns. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 55. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? One should never judge a person by external appearances. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 56.

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person should never make an important decision alone. Use specific reasons and morrie, examples to support your answer. 57. A company is going to give some money either to support the arts or to protect the environment. Which do you think the company should choose? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 58.

Some movies are serious, designed to make the situation, audience think. Other movies are designed primarily to amuse and entertain. Which type of movie do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to tuesday summary support your answer. 59. Do you agree or disagree with the grace papers, following statement? Businesses should do anything they can to make a profit. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position. 60.

Some people are always in a hurry to go places and get things done. Other people prefer to take their time and live life at a slower pace. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 61. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Games are as important for adults as they are for children. Use specific reasons and examples to tuesday morrie support your answer. 62. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents or other adult relatives should make important decisions for their older (15 to 18year-old) teenage children.

Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 63. What do you want most in a friend someone who is intelligent, or someone who has a sense of humor, or someone who is reliable? Which one of these characteristics is most important to you? Use reasons and specific examples to age gap relationships explain your choice. 64. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Most experiences in our lives that seemed difficult at the time become valuable lessons for the future.

Use reasons and specific examples to tuesday summary support our answer. Some people prefer to age gap work for themselves or own a business. 65. Others prefer to work for an employer. Would you rather be self-employed, work for someone else, or own a business? Use specific reasons to explain your choice. 66. Should a city try to preserve its old, historic buildings or destroy them and replace them with modern buildings? Use specific reasons and examples to tuesday with support your opinion. 67.

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Classmates are a more important influence than parents on stuart mill utilitarianism a child's success in school. Use specific reasons and examples to tuesday morrie support your answer. 68. If you were an employer, which kind of worker would you prefer to hire: an inexperienced worker at a lower salary or an experienced worker at a higher salary? Use specific reasons and details to john book support your answer.

69. Many teachers assign homework to students every day. Tuesday Summary. Do you think that daily homework is necessary for students? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 70. If you could study a subject that you have never had the opportunity to study, what would you choose? Explain your choice, using specific reasons and details.

71. Some people think that the automobile has improved modern life. Others think that the grace papers, automobile has caused serious problems. What is your opinion? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 72. Which would you choose: a high-paying job with long hours that would give you little time with family and friends or a lower-paying job with shorter hours that would give you more time with family and friends? Explain your choice, using specific reasons and details. 73. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Grades (marks) encourage students to learn.

Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 74. Tuesday Summary. Some people say that computers have made life easier and more convenient. Other people say that computers have made life more complex and stressful. Grace Papers. What is your opinion?

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 75. Do you agree or disagree with the with morrie, following statement? The best way to travel is in a group led by a tour guide. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

76. Some universities require students to take classes in many subjects. Other universities require students to john stuart mill utilitarianism specialize in one subject. Which is better? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 77. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Children should begin learning a foreign language as soon as they start school. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position.

78. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Boys and girls should attend separate schools. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 79. Is it more important to be able to with summary work with a group of people on a team or to work independently? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 80. Your city has decided to build a statue or monument to honor a famous person in your country. Who would you choose?

Use reasons and specific examples to samsung competencies support your choice. 81. Describe a custom from your country that you would like people from other countries to adopt. Tuesday With Summary. Explain your choice, using specific reasons and examples. 82. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Technology has made the world a better place to live. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 83.

Do you agree or disagree with the grace papers, following statement? Advertising can tell you a lot about with summary a country. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 84. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Modern technology is creating a single world culture. Grace Papers. Use specific reasons and examples to with morrie support your opinion. 85. John Utilitarianism. Some people say that the Internet provides people with a lot of valuable information.

Others think access to so much information creates problems. Which view do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 86. A foreign visitor has only one day to spend in your country. Where should this visitor go on that day? Why?

Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 87. If you could go back to tuesday with morrie summary some time and place in grace papers the past, when and where would you go? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 88. What discovery in the last 100 years has been most beneficial for people in your country? Use specific reasons and with morrie summary, examples to marketing analysis support your choice. 89. Tuesday With. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

Telephones and E-mail have made communication between people less personal. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 90. If you could travel back in time to of the gods meet a famous person from history, what person would you like to meet? Use specific reasons and examples to with summary support your choice. 91.

If you could meet a famous entertainer or athlete, who would that be, and why? Use specific reasons and examples to of the gods support your choice. 92. If you could ask a famous person one question, what would you ask? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 93.

Some people prefer to with morrie live in places that have the same weather or climate all year long. Others like to live in gods areas where the weather changes several times a year. Tuesday Morrie Summary. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 94.

Many students have to live with roommates while going to school or university. What are some of the important qualities of a good roommate? Use specific reasons and examples to explain why these qualities are important. 95. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Dancing plays an important role in a culture. The Mills Of The. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 96. Some people think governments should spend as much money as possible exploring outer space (for example, traveling to the Moon and to other planets). Other people disagree and with morrie summary, think governments should spend this money for our basic needs on Earth.

Which of these two opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and samsung, details to support your answer. 97. People have different ways of escaping the stress and tuesday with, difficulties of modern life. Some read; some exercise; others work in their gardens. What do you think are the best ways of reducing stress? Use specific details and examples in your answer. 98.

Do you agree or disagree with the situation analysis, following statement? Teachers should be paid according to how much their students learn. Give specific reasons and tuesday, examples to support your opinion. 99. If you were asked to send one thing representing your country to samsung competencies an international exhibition, what would you choose?

Why? Use specific reasons and tuesday with summary, details to explain your choice. 100. You have been told that dormitory rooms at your university must be shared by two students. Would you rather have the university assign a student to grace papers share a room with you, or would you rather choose your own roommate? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer.

101. Some people think that governments should spend as much money as possible on with summary developing or buying computer technology. Other people disagree and think that this money should be spent on more basic needs. Which one of these opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 102. Some people like doing work by hand. Others prefer using machines.

Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to grace papers support your answer. 103. Schools should ask students to evaluate their teachers. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 104. In your opinion, what is the most important characteristic (for example, honesty, intelligence, a sense of humor) that a person can have to be successful in life? Use specific reasons and examples from your. experience to with morrie explain your answer.

When you write your answer, you are not limited to Home Allergy the examples listed in the question. 105. Tuesday Summary. It is generally agreed that society benefits from the work of its members. Compare the grace papers, contributions of tuesday with summary, artists to society with the contributions of analysis, scientists to society. Which type of contribution do you think is valued more by your society? Give specific reasons to support your answer. 106. Students at universities often have a choice of places to live. They may choose to live in university dormitories, or they may choose to live in apartments in the community.

Compare the advantages of living in university housing with the tuesday summary, advantages of living in an apartment in the community. Grace Papers. Where would you prefer to live? Give reasons for your preference. 107. You need to travel from your home to a place 40 miles (64 kilometers) away. Compare the different kinds of transportation you could use. Morrie. Tell which method of travel you would choose. 30 Year Age Gap. Give specific reasons for your choice. 108. Tuesday With. Some people believe that a college or university education should be available to age gap relationships all students. Others believe that higher education should be available only to good students.

Discuss these views. Which view do you agree with? Explain why. 109. Some people believe that the best way of learning about life is by tuesday with morrie summary listening to the advice of family and friends. Other people believe that the best way of learning about life is through personal experience.

Compare the advantages of 30 year age gap, these two different ways of tuesday with, learning about situation life. Which do you think is preferable? Use specific examples to support your preference. 110. Tuesday With Morrie Summary. When people move to another country, some of them decide to samsung competencies follow the customs of the new country.

Others prefer to keep their own customs. Compare these two choices. Which one do you prefer? Support your answer with specific details. 111. Morrie. Some people prefer to spend most of their time alone. Others like to marketing situation be with friends most of the with, time. Do you prefer to grace papers spend your time alone or with friends? Use specific reasons to tuesday with morrie summary support your answer. 112.

Some people prefer to spend time with one or two close friends. Others choose to spend time with a large number of friends. Compare the advantages of each choice. Which of these two ways of grace papers, spending time do you prefer? Use specific reasons to support your answer. 113. Some people think that children should begin their formal education at a very early age and should spend most of their time on school studies. Others believe that young children should spend most of tuesday with morrie summary, their time playing. Compare these two views.

Which view do you agree with? Why? 114. The government has announced that it plans to build a new university. The Mills Gods. Some people think that your community would be a good place to locate the university. Compare the advantages and tuesday with morrie summary, disadvantages of establishing a new university in your community. Marketing. Use specific details in your discussion. 115. Some people think that the family is the most important influence on young adults. Other people think that friends are the most important influence on young adults. Which view do you agree with?

Use examples to support your position. 116. Some people prefer to plan activities for their free time very carefully. Others choose not to morrie make any plans at all for their free time. Compare the benefits of planning free-time activities with the benefits of not making plans. Which do you prefer — planning or not planning for your leisure time?

Use specific reasons and examples to explain your choice. 117. People learn in different ways. Some people learn by doing things; other people learn by reading about things; others learn by listening to people talk about things. Which of the mills gods, these methods of learning is best for with summary you? Use specific examples to support your choice. 118. Marketing Analysis. Some people choose friends who are different from themselves. Others choose friends who are similar to themselves.

Compare the advantages of tuesday with morrie, having friends who are different from you with the advantages of having friends who are similar to you. Which kind of friend do you prefer for yourself? Why? 119. Some people enjoy change, and they look forward to new experiences. Situation Analysis. Others like their lives to stay the same, and they do not change their usual habits. Compare these two approaches to tuesday with summary life. Which approach do you prefer?

Explain why. 120. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People behave differently when they wear different clothes. Do you agree that different clothes influence the grace papers, way people behave?

Use specific examples to support your answer. 121. Decisions can be made quickly, or they can be made after careful thought. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The decisions that people make quickly are always wrong. Use reasons and specific examples to support your opinion. 122. Some people trust their first impressions about a person's character because they believe these judgments are generally correct. Other people do not judge a person's character quickly because they believe first impressions are often wrong. Compare these two attitudes. Which attitude do you agree with?

Support your choice with specific examples. 123. With Morrie Summary. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People are never satisfied with what they have; they always want something more or something different. Use specific reasons to support your answer. 124. Home Remedies For Yeast Allergy Essay. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People should read only those books that are about real events, real people, and morrie, established facts.

Use specific reasons and details to support your opinion. 125. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is more important for students to study history and literature than it is for Remedies for Yeast Allergy them to study science and mathematics. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 126. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? All students should be required to study art and music in secondary school.

Use specific reasons to support your answer. 127. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? There is nothing that young people can teach older people. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position. 128.

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Reading fiction (such as novels and short stories) is more enjoyable than watching movies. Tuesday Morrie. Use specific reasons and examples to explain your position. 129. Some people say that physical exercise should be a required part of samsung core competencies, every school day.

Other people believe that students should spend the whole school day on academic studies. Morrie. Which opinion do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 130. A university plans to develop a new research center in core your country.

Some people want a center for with morrie business research. Other people want a center for research in agriculture (farming). Which of these two kinds of research centers do you recommend for relationships your country? Use specific reasons in summary your recommendation. 131. Some young children spend a great amount of their time practicing sports. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this. Use specific reasons and Home Remedies Essay, examples to with summary support your answer.

132. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Only people who earn a lot of money are successful. Use specific reasons and grace papers, examples to support your answer. 133. If you could invent something new, what product would you develop? Use specific details to explain why this invention is needed. 134. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person's childhood years (the time from birth to tuesday with morrie twelve years of age) are the most important years of a person's life.

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 135. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Children should be required to help with household tasks as soon as they are able to do so. Use specific reasons and core, examples to support your answer. 136. Some high schools require all students to wear school uniforms. Other high schools permit students to decide what to wear to school. Which of these two school policies do you think is better?

Use specific reasons and examples to tuesday summary support your opinion. 137. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing a game is fun only when you win. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 138. Relationships. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? High schools should allow students to study the tuesday, courses that students want to study.

Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 139. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is grace papers better to be a member of a group than to be the leader of a group. Tuesday Morrie. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 140.

What do you consider to john stuart mill be the most important room in tuesday with a house? Why is this room more important to you than any other room? Use specific reasons and examples to analysis support your opinion. 141. Some items (such as clothes or furniture) can be made by hand or by machine. Which do you prefer — items made by hand or items made by machine? Use reasons and summary, specific examples to explain your choice. 142. If you could make one important change in a school that you attended, what change would you make? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 143.

A gift (such as a camera, a soccer ball, or an animal) can contribute to a child's development. What gift would you give to help a child develop? Why? Use reasons and specific examples to support your choice. 144. Some people believe that students should be given one long vacation each year. Others believe that students should have several short vacations throughout the year. Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 145. Would you prefer to live in a traditional house or in a modern apartment building?

Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 146.Some people say that advertising encourages us to buy things we really do not need. Others say that advertisements tell us about new products that may improve our lives. Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 147.

Some people prefer to grace papers spend their free time outdoors. Other people prefer to tuesday with morrie spend their leisure time indoors. Would you prefer to samsung competencies be outside or would you prefer to be inside for your leisure activities? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your choice. 148. Your school has received a gift of morrie summary, money. What do you think is the best way for your school to spend this money?

Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 149. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing games teaches us about life. Use specific reasons and john utilitarianism book, examples to support your answer.

150. Imagine that you have received some land to use as you wish. How would you use this land? Use specific details to explain your answer. 151. Tuesday With Summary. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

Watching television is grace papers bad for children. Use specific details and examples to support your answer. 152. What is the most important animal in your country? Why is the animal important? Use reasons and specific details to with explain your answer. 153. Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources, such as forests, animals, or clean water. Core. Choose one resource that is disappearing and with morrie summary, explain why it needs to 30 year be saved.

Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 154. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A zoo has no useful purpose. Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. In some countries, people are no longer allowed to smoke in many public places and office buildings. Do you think this is a good rule or a bad rule?

Use specific reasons and details to support your position. 155. Plants can provide food, shelter, clothing, or medicine. What is one kind of plant that is tuesday with morrie important to you or the people in your country? Use specific reasons and grace papers, details to tuesday morrie explain your choice. 156. You have the opportunity to gods visit a foreign country for two weeks. Which country would you like to visit? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 157.

In the with morrie, future, students may have the choice of studying at Remedies Allergy Essay, home by using technology such as computers or television or of studying at traditional schools. Which would you prefer? Use reasons and specific details to explain your choice. 158. Tuesday With. When famous people such as actors, athletes and rock stars give their opinions, many people listen. Do you think we should pay attention to these opinions? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 159. Grace Papers. The twentieth century saw great change. In your opinion, what is one change that should be remembered about the twentieth century? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice.

160. Tuesday With Summary. When people need to complain about a product or poor service, some prefer to complain in writing and others prefer to complain in person. Marketing Situation. Which way do you prefer? Use specific reasons and tuesday summary, examples to support your answer. 161. People remember special gifts or presents that they have received. Why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

Some famous athletes and entertainers earn millions of dollars every year. Do you think these people deserve such high salaries? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 162. Is the ability to read and write more important today than in the past? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 163. People do many different things to stay healthy. 30 Year. What do you do for tuesday good health?

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 164. You have decided to give several hours of your time each month to improve the community where you live. What is one thing you will do to improve your community? Why? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 165.

People recognize a difference between children and adults. What events (experiences or ceremonies) make a person an adult? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 166. Your school has enough money to purchase either computers for students or books for the library. Which should your school choose to buy —computers or books? Use specific reasons and examples to samsung support your recommendation. 167. Morrie. Many students choose to attend schools or universities outside their home countries. Why do some students study abroad? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer.

168. People listen to music for different reasons and at different times. Age Gap Relationships. Why is music important to many people? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 169. Groups or organizations are an important part of with, some people's lives. Why are groups or organizations important to people? Use specific reasons and analysis, examples to explain your answer.

170. Imagine that you are preparing for tuesday morrie summary a trip. Grace Papers. You plan to be away from your home for a year. In addition to clothing and personal care items, you can take one additional thing. What would you take and why? Use specific reasons and tuesday morrie summary, details to support your choice.

171. When students move to a new school, they sometimes face problems. How can schools help these students with their problems? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 172. It is sometimes said that borrowing money from Remedies Essay, a friend can harm or damage the friendship. Do you agree? Why or why not? Use reasons and specific examples to explain your answer. 173. Every generation of people is different in important ways.

How is your generation different from your parents' generation? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 174. Some students like classes where teachers lecture (do all of the talking) in class. Other students prefer classes where the morrie summary, students do some of the talking. Which type of grace papers, class do you prefer? Give specific reasons and details to support your choice. 175. Holidays honor people or events. If you could create a new holiday, what person or event would it honor and with morrie, how would you want people to celebrate it?

Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 176. 30 Year. A friend of yours has received some money and plans to use all of tuesday with morrie, it either. • to go on vacation. Your friend has asked you for advice.

Compare your friend's two choices and explain which one you think your friend should choose. Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 177. 30 Year Age Gap Relationships. The 21st century has begun. What changes do you think this new century will bring? Use examples and morrie, details in your answer. Stuart Mill Book. What are some of the qualities of a good parent? Use specific details and tuesday morrie, examples to explain your answer.

178. Movies are popular all over the world. For Yeast Essay. Explain why movies are so popular. Use reasons and specific examples to tuesday support your answer. In your country, is there more need for land to be left in its natural condition or is there more need for land to be developed for housing and industry? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 179. Many people have a close relationship with their pets.

These people treat their birds, cats, or other animals as members of Home Remedies Essay, their family. In your opinion, are such relationships good? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to tuesday with support your answer. 180. Films can tell us a lot about the country where they were made. Marketing Situation Analysis. What have you learned about a country from watching its movies? Use specific examples and morrie summary, details to support your response.

181. Some students prefer to study alone. Others prefer to Home Remedies for Yeast Allergy study with a group of students. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and with morrie summary, examples to the mills of the gods support your answer. 182.

You have enough money to tuesday with purchase either a house or a business. Which would you choose to buy? Give specific reasons to explain your choice.

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ethics coursework Welcome to the Online Research Ethics Course developed through the Practical Ethics Center at morrie summary, the University of Montana with Office of marketing situation analysis, Research Integrity (ORI) support during the 2002-03 academic year. This course is intended to provide a foundation for institutions that are working to promote Responsible Conduct of Research. Our hope is that web-based instruction like this will expose investigators and graduate students to the kinds of ethical issues and federal requirements they encounter throughout their careers and prepare them to deal with those issues and requirements. The six sections represented by the buttons to the left each provide information on major issues and tuesday summary contain at least one case study that allow exploration of different options, as well as an assessment tool so you can test your knowledge of the the mills gods area. Click on a section button at tuesday with summary, the left and read each section's Introduction and Major Issues for Discussion. You may also want to explore the many additional resources provided for each section. Next, select the Case Study link.

Each Case Study provides different alternatives for you to explore. When you have finished all of the alternatives, click on john stuart utilitarianism book the Section Assessment link to test your understanding of the covered material. Once you have successfully completed the Section Assessment, you may print out with morrie a certificate of completion for the section. To proceed to another section, simply click on grace papers a link provided at the top left. Federal funding agencies and research institutions are increasingly pro-active in insuring that researchers and with morrie graduate students in research disciplines learn about the ethics related to their work. In December 2000, the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) issued the Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Instruction in the Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR). If the policy had been approved, ORI would require research institutions that are recipients of situation analysis, PHS funds to develop and require training in ethics for tuesday with summary, all research staff who have direct and marketing situation analysis substantive involvement in proposing, performing, reviewing, or reporting research, or who receive research training, supported by PHS funds or who otherwise work on the PHS-supported research project even if the individual does not receive PHS support. With Summary! /1 PHS research funding is provided by the Administration for Children and Families, Centers for the mills of the gods, Disease Control and Prevention, Indian Health Service, and National Institutes of Health. The PHS policy requiring RCR training was suspended in February 2000, pending review of its substance and whether the document should have been issued as a regulation rather than a policy, and, in tuesday more than three years has not been instituted. Nevertheless, ORI has continued to develop resources and to fund development to Home Essay assist in educational planning for research institutions that are creating materials and processes for RCR.

In December 2000, the Office of Science and Technology Policy offered new definitions and tuesday with morrie procedures to standardize responses by federal funding agencies to allegations of research misconduct. The new definitions and procedures were meant to apply to 30 year relationships all federal departments and agencies. Tuesday Morrie! That proposal defines misconduct as fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in age gap proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results. Under this proposal, research institutions would be responsible for the protection of those who make an accusation of misconduct and protection of morrie, those accused. Research institutions would also be required to separate investigations of misconduct into four different phases: inquiry, investigation, adjudication, and appeal. As of early 2002, this proposal has still not been fully implemented, but federal agencies were seeking, individually, to adopt the standard definitions and procedures. For example, on January 25, 2002, The National Science Foundation (NSF) placed a notice in the Federal Register of its intention to revise its misconduct regulations to conform with the new federal policy. /3. As will be explained more fully in the section on situation analysis animals in tuesday with summary research, there is an on-going battle at samsung core competencies, the federal level over whether birds, mice, and rats should be protected under the Federal Animal Welfare Act. There are also some areas of agreement among federal agencies regarding research ethics. All researchers who use human participants in their research are required to have training on the topic, and research institutions must have committees to oversee the use of animals and human participation in research and documentation to show that the oversight is accomplished. It is in this context that research institutions are working to develop research ethics education for investigators, students and lab personnel.

This asynchronous online course provides such education. Morrie Summary! In anticipation of expected federal requirements, this online course covers the topics listed by PHS as core curriculum: 1). Data acquisition, management, sharing, and ownership; 2). Mentor/trainee responsibilities; 3).

Publication practices and responsible authorship; 5). Collaborative science; 6). Human subjects; 7). Research involving animals; 8). Research misconduct; and. 9).

Conflict of interest and commitment. /4 In addition, the course uses the partially implemented standardized federal definitions and procedures. This course also encourages investigators, and requires students enrolled in the course for credit, to grace papers think critically about what it means to be an tuesday with summary, ethical researcher. One may be in compliance, without being an ethical researcher. Being in compliance means following the rules; ethical research requires an understanding of the for Yeast Essay ethical imperatives behind the morrie rules. Home For Yeast! The fundamental ethical imperative behind the rules is with summary, that researchers seek to do their jobs in a manner that will not cause unjustified harm to marketing analysis anyone. But, most researchers work toward acting in an ethically ideal way -- through their work and professional conduct, they seek to tuesday morrie summary prevent harm and to promote the good. Throughout the course, investigators and students will be asked to think about the range of actions that count as responsible conduct for the ethical researcher as well as identifying the rules that researchers are expected to follow. Some of the content for this course comes from work sponsored by NSF /5 and core competencies the Fund for the Improvement of with summary, Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) /6 , conducted at Dartmouth College and the University of Montana from 1992-1995.

Those projects resulted in three publications, Stern, Judy E. and the mills of the Elliott, Deni, The Ethics of Scientific Research: A Guidebook for Course Development and Elliott, Deni and Stern, Judy E. (eds), Research Ethics: A Reader and a special issue of Professional Ethics Journal, Volume 4, Numbers 3 4. Both books were published by the University Press of summary, New England in 1997 and material from both books is Remedies Essay, incorporated into with morrie this course. Copies of the journal may be ordered from Professional Ethics Journal at the Center for Applied Philosophy, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. This course was also enriched through a conversation the course authors had with Dartmouth, NSF and FIPSE in December 2000 and by relationships the pilot testing of sections by colleagues around the tuesday with morrie summary country in March, 2002. This course is divided into six sections that cover the major topics in research ethics. Each section includes an introduction that identifies learning goals, major issues for discussion, at least one case study, external links, and an examination on the concepts covered. The case studies are intended to be explored through an investigation of the mills of the gods, all the tuesday with offered choices.

Each of the six sections may be examined independently. Each section, not counting explorations into external links, will take between 30 and 45 minutes to complete. I. Ethical Issues in Research: A Framework. A. Compliance and Ethics. B. Compliance Concepts. C. Ethics Concepts. II. Grace Papers! Interpersonal Responsibility.

A. Mentor/Trainee Responsibilities. B. Determining Publication Practices and Responsible Authorship. C. Morrie Summary! Collaborative Science/Competitive Science. III. Situation! Institutional Responsibility. A. With! The Institutional Process Regarding Allegations. B. Conflicts of Interest and Conflicts of Commitment. IV. Professional Responsibility. A. Proposing Research.

B. Dissemination of Findings. V. Animals in Research. VI. Marketing Situation Analysis! Human Participation in Research. A Brief History of the Development of Research Ethics. Questions relating to the ethical practice of research have been around as long as research itself.

However, until the late 20th Century, it was assumed that scientists were naturally conducting their research in with summary a responsible way or that the profession could identify and weed out the few bad actors. One of the hallmarks of research in the hard sciences and social science is trust in its self-correcting nature. Instances of intentional fraud were thought to Remedies for Yeast Essay be few. It was erroneously believed that well-intentioned researchers did not need clear statements of expectations or conventional norms. It was assumed that novice researchers learned the conventions and expectations of high quality research in the labs of summary, their equally well-intentioned mentors. The individual nature of the instruction meant that what were perceived as norms were more often the individual mentor's own perspectives. The absence of norms. was symptomatic of the neglect of research ethics in the decades leading to samsung core competencies the 1980s, according to Caroline Whitbeck in her introduction to a collection of papers on Trustworthy Research. With Morrie! /7 During this period, hardly any universities or other research institutions established policies for investigating charges of Home Remedies for Yeast Allergy Essay, wrongdoing. The U.S. federal government, with its responsibility for overseeing the use of public funds, became actively involved in identifying and describing less-than-adequate research practices in the 1980s. Between 1980 and 1985, the federal focus and language changed from research fraud to with morrie research misconduct. In Congressional subcommittee hearings in 1981 on biomedical fraud, led by Albert Gore, Jr., it became clear that the misdeeds being discussed were broader than what was previously thought to analysis count as fraud.

Through the work of this committee and subsequent work, the definition of misconduct evolved to include intentional acts of fabrication, falsification and plagiarism (FFP). The inclusion of what has been referred to with as FFP is generally not controversial, but FFP is not inclusive of all that can go wrong in research. Essay! Along with FFP, there are other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted within the scientific community for proposing, conducting or reporting research. Deviations from commonly accepted practices were thought by some to with morrie include behavior specific to the substance of the research, such as failing to report results that contradict one's hypothesis, and thought by others to include a wide range of unconventional behaviors on the part of the researcher, including sexual harassment or drug abuse. Due to uncertainty as to Home Allergy Essay what should count in the category of practices that seriously deviate, that language was dropped out of the federal requirements proposed in December 2000. However, this category of problematic practices (in addition to FFP) has remained an important area for teaching responsible conduct of research. Responsible conduct of research includes avoidance of practices that seriously deviate from with, commonly accepted procedures as well as refraining from intentional fabrication, falsification, and grace papers plagiarism.

Since the tuesday morrie summary 1980s, professional societies and federal agencies moved to describe research norms and to look for ways to educate young scientists. Gods! While not disputing the importance of informal mentoring in the teaching of with morrie, students, the National Academy of analysis, Sciences explained that [S]cience has become so complex and so closely intertwined with society's needs that a more formal introduction to research ethics and the responsibilities that these commitments imply is also needed - an introduction that can supplement the informal lessons provided by research supervisors and mentors. The Academy, in 1989, produced the first edition of On Being A Scientist, to describe, for beginning scientists, the ethical foundations of scientific practice. More than 200,000 copies were distributed to graduate and undergraduate students. /8. By the end of the 1980s, the Institute of Medicine recommended that students be provided formal instruction in research practice and PHS moved to tuesday summary make institutions of higher education more accountable for the conduct of marketing analysis, their researchers. The 1989 misconduct regulations from the Public Health Service (PHS) (which includes some federal funding agencies) stated Institutions should foster a research environment that discourages misconduct in with morrie all research and that deals forthrightly with possible misconduct associated with research for grace papers, which PHS funds have been provided or requested. /9. Beginning in the mid 1980s the US Department of Education, the National Science Foundation (NSF), as well as the tuesday with National Institutes of Health (NIH) began providing resources to encourage study and grace papers curricular development in research ethics itself.

Among the tuesday with summary important results of those efforts are the development of courses in research ethics that range from high school through senior investigator levels, /10 development of guidelines for practice, /11 study of the pressures that work against ethical research, /12 and the creation of an Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science. Home For Yeast Allergy Essay! /13. The question remains about whether increased federal attention on standardizing definitions, procedures and training will encourage or inhibit the development of more ethical research behavior. Research institutions are increasingly encouraged to create and maintain an environment that supports the most ethical work. This supports the with morrie likelihood that researchers will become increasingly clear on their role-related responsibilities. However, the federal standards can alternatively be seen as encouraging a very minimalistic approach to ethics -- institutional attention to the development of minimal compliance. One is ethically responsible for far more than for what one can be held legally accountable. This is true in general morality, just as it is true in research. It is wrong to lie in marketing situation many more instances that the lies for which one can be prosecuted. In an analogous fashion, it is important that institutions and investigators keep in mind that requirements for compliance prescribe a minimal standard for research practice. It is with, important to know how to be compliant, just as it is important to know the laws for samsung competencies, which one can be held accountable by society. Morrie! But it is equally important that individuals think about how to best meet their role-related responsibilities in ways that go beyond mere compliance with rules and marketing analysis regulations.

Institutions should consider how best to encourage research that is praiseworthy, rather than how to simply discourage research that is blameworthy. 3/ Federal Register, pp. 76260-76264. 4/ PHS Policy on with morrie summary Instruction in the Responsible Conduct of Research, December 1, 2000; www.ori.hhs.gov/html/programs/announcement.asp. 6/ FIPSE #P116 B960045.

A comprehensive list of RCR resources to assist institutions in developing RCR programs and to facilitate the sharing of resources among institutions. The Ethics of Scientific Research A Guidebook for Course Development: A 75-page PDF (Adobe Acrobat) book by Judy Stern and Deni Elliott. Whether scientific ethics is approached through a single course or a series of courses or seminars throughout the graduate curriculum, it has become obvious that students need exposure to ethics in a number of contexts. Home Remedies! Research ethics can and must be taught in a formalized manner. It is our belief that courses in research ethics that incorporate a solid philosophical framework have the tuesday with morrie greatest potential for long-term usefulness to students. While other methodologies may reinforce this material, a course of the type described in this monograph has the potential to help a student develop the tools to see ethical problems from a new vantage point. It is in situation analysis this context and for these reasons that we designed our course in research ethics. Resources For Instruction In Responsible Conduct Of Research: Examples of programs and tools for instruction in the responsible conduct of morrie, research. Maintained by Michael Kalichman, Ph.D.

Director, Research Ethics Program, University of California, San Diego. The Mills! The site also contains a link to Online Resources For RCR Instruction, a comprehensive web site supported by ORI. Please Note: The course authors acknowledge that this course content is built on the shoulders of great thinkers, both classical and contemporary, and have striven to assign appropriate credit for the ideas and words of others. If you believe that appropriate credit has not been assigned, please contact the course authors so that corrections can be made, or additional credit can be given.